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Royal Geographical Society (with IBG): the heart of geography
Antarctic Glaciers: Pine Island
Can GIS help to conserve fossils on the Jurassic Coast?
Climate change is melting glaciers
Coastal erosion: Britains Atlantis and 1000 years of cliff retreat
Coastal surges and flooding in the UK: a prompt for more sustainable drainage?
Dam downstream disaster
Delta blues
Ethiopian dam threatens Lake Turkana
Glacial retreat: Historical evidence of climate change in Mongolia
Ice Odyssey
Ice sheet - PVC glaciers
It's only water: who cares?
Physical Geography and Facebook
Regime change
Reservoir dogs future water supply
Sink or swim?
Sinkholes: A geophysical hazard
Water, water, everywhere
Why did the Azure Window collapse and how can we preserve coastal heritage?

Landscape processes

Drylands | coasts | glaciation | geomorphological processes | landscape formation and systems | rivers | mountains | ecosystems | flooding | soils and rocks | deserts | forests | wetlands | ice sheets

A Level subject content overviews

To support teachers with the introduction of the 2016 A Level courses, the Society is providing a new range of online resources and support. The following overview documents provide an introduction for teachers to some of the key content, concepts and geographical theories within the new A Levels and will be particularly useful for colleagues who have not previously taught elements of the new content. These have been written by leading academic geographers, a number of whom were members of the ALCAB subject advisory panel for geography. 

Dryland Landscapes (PDF) Written by Professor Joanna Bullard, Department of Geography, Loughborough University

Glaciated landscapes (PDF) Written by Dr Peter Knight and Dr Richard Waller from the School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University

Landscape systems (PDF) Written by Martin Evans, Professor of Geomorphology, School of Environment, University of Manchester


Why did the Azure Window collapse and how can we preserve coastal heritage? (October 2017) The Azure window, a coastal arch known as Tieqa tad-Dwerja on Gozo Island, collapsed into the sea during a storm in March 2017
Human triggered avalanches in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania (July 2015) The frequency with which dangerous avalanches occur in the Carpathian mountains is comparable with the rest of Europe and North America, yet observations of their causes in this region are relatively understudied
Water conservation and behaviour in Australia (May 2015) Water managers, companies and policy makers have long been concerned with how to balance water supply with water demand
Comparing Avalanches in the Alps and Afghanistan (March 2015) Intense periods of snow fall in two regions of the world caused a series of deadly avalanches in early 2015
Antarctic glaciers: Pine Island (February 2014) Scientists have identified Pine Island Glacier as the most rapidly shrinking glacier on the planet
Coastal surges and flooding in the UK: a prompt for more sustainable drainage? (January 2014) In January 2014, at the same time North America was experiencing sub-zero temperatures, the UK was facing its own package of extreme weather
Glacial retreat: Historical evidence of climate change in Mongolia (June 2013) This research analyses glacial retreat in the Turgen Mountains, northwestern Mongolia
Coastal erosion: Britains Atlantis and 1000 years of cliff retreat (October 2013) Dunwich was once one of the largest towns in England. However, the majority of the former town is now in ruins beneath the sea due to ongoing cliff retreat
Sinkholes: A geophysical hazard (March 2013) Sinkholes can make it seem like the earth is opening up and swallowing people and their possessions whole. However, geography and geology can explain all
Physical Geography and Facebook (June 2012) Why are global media TNCs locating in cold environments?
Can GIS help to conserve fossils on the Jurassic Coast? (September 2010) How GIS has been used to enable erosion rates to be monitored along this important section of coastline in future years.
59 Dams: China's climate change challenges (June 2009) Why 59 dams may help to ease China's potential water security issues
Saving the rainforest? (January 2009) Since the 1970s, an increasing number of national, international and non governmental organisations have been established to promote rainforest conservation
Climate change: Financing global forests (October 2008) Lauched on 14 October 2008, the Eliasch Report is an independent report to government that focuses on effective reductions in forest carbon emissions
Storm surge (January 2008) Storm surges to threaten London and the SE?
Sink or swim? (December 2006) How is the UK's coastal environment and its management changing?
Ice sheet - PVC glaciers (May 2006) Why are scientists wrapping glaciers in plastic?
Regime change (November 2004) Colorado - how are river processes being managed?
Flash flood (August 2004) Boscastle - diary of a deluge
Delta Blues (June 2004) Was Spain right to abandon its Ebro River development project?
The big picture (May 2004) How do we put the latest climate change warnings for the UK into perspective?
Water, water, everywhere (March 2004) What were the water management successes and failures from the winter 2003-04?
Dam downstream disaster (April 2004) How and why is a dam in China affecting millions of people in south-east Asia?
It's only water: who cares? (March 2004) Synoptic geography in practice: the Water Framework Directive
Ice Odyssey (February 2004) Antarctica: the geography behind a record breaking trek
Drought? What drought? (November 2003) Given recent heavy rains why are spring droughts being forecast?
Wave goodbye to coastal defences? (November 2003) Should we give up defending the coast from the sea?
Reservoir dogs future water supply (October 2003) Population growth, climate change, increased consumption: how are future water shortages to be resolved?
Climate change is melting glaciers (September 2003) But why might melting ice lead to a water shortage?

 Online lectures

What's going on in Greenland (June 2015) Professor Alun Hubbard talks about glacial melt and retreat in Greenland View lecture
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Siberia: its history and its people, Professor Janet Hartley (March 2015) Janet investigates the settlers over four centuries of Russian expansion, throwing light on the lives of the people of this inhospitable land. View lecture
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Saving the last cheetahs of Iran, Dr Luke Hunter (May 2014) Dr Luke Hunter talks about the quest to save the Asiatic Cheetah, also known as the Iranian Cheetah; one of the most endangered of the world’s big cats

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Walking home from Mongolia, Angus McDonald (December 2014) Hong Kong-based writer, traveller and teacher Rob describes the highs and lows of his mammoth 3,000-mile walk through the heart of China, from the Gobi Desert to Hong Kong.

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The Nile, Toby Wilkinson (April 2014) The Nile is the contant thread that runs through Egyptian history. Toby takes us downriver through the past and present of a conservative yet rapidly changing land

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Mayhem on the Mekong, Professor Steve Darby(February 2014) The Mekong River is a biodiversity hotspot of global significance, threatened by rapid hydro-power development. Steve explains why preserving the Mekong's annual flooding is integral to the future of the river and its delta

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Future Oceans: a Sea of Hope or Despair: Callum Roberts (February 2014) The negative impact human beings have had on marine life in the ocean is widespread and far reaching

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Colliding continents: the geological exploration of the Himalaya Karakoram, and Tibet Professor Mike Searle (April 2013) Geologist Mike Searle gives a talk on his field research and expeditions to understand the evolutions of the world's greatest mountain system - the Himalaya and the adjacenet Tivetan Plateau and Karakoram Ranges

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Why are the world's big rivers so different? (January 2013) Big rivers can be found in all of the world’s continents and in every region, across the sub- tropics, high-latitudes and equator

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The natural explorer, Tristan Gooley (October 2012) Tristan shows us how his techniques and those of insightful travellers of the past 2,000 years can enrich our travels - a short walk can compare with an epic expedition

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Western Australia: Exploring the secrets of an ancient land, Lyn Beazley (September 2011) Colonised less than 200 years ago, Western Australia is just beginning to reveal her age-old secrets. Lyn will explore the evolution of its extraordinary geology and biodiversity and their relevance to our world past, present and future

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Just deserts, Andrew Goudie (October 2010) Illustrated by images of dust storms, dunes and eroded landscapes, Andrew shows how new technologies have revolutionised our understanding of desert landscapes, and explores how sand seas and dunes may respond to global warming

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Atlantic: an ocean of a million stories, Simon Winchester (October 2010) Simon, who is passionate about the sea, brings to life the story of the Atlantic Ocean from its birth in the recesses of geological time to its powerful influence on humankind and its uncertain future

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Plastic pollution in the oceans (October 2010) Our throw away society is polluting large areas of the world's oceans with plastics, threatening marine life and food chains. How did it get there? What are the practical solutions? Is it time to re-evaluate waste as a resource?

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Antarctica's future - should we care? Collin Summerhayes (February 2010) Antarctica is the world's refrigerator and home to unique flora and fauna on land and in the sea. Colin explores the seeming contradictions - such as melting glaciers but little melting sea ice - and looks at what will happen to this magnificent continent over the next 100 years

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The Magnetic North: notes from the Arctic Circle, Sara Wheeler (October 2009) Smashing through the Arctic Ocean with the crew of a Russian icebreaker and shadowing the Trans-Alaskan pipeline with truckers, Sara uncovers the beautiful, brutal reality of the Arctic

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Razing the rainforest (October 2008) How can we best conserve the world's rainforests in the face of enormous challenges from palm oil, timber trade, green colonialism and biofuels?

View lecture
View resources


KS2: Mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes Exploring how and where mountains and natural hazards form
KS2: Antarctica - Extreme wilderness Learn about the race to the Pole
KS2: Exploring Shackleton’s Antarctica A look at the 1915 Endurance expedition and daily life in Antarctica
KS2: Mount Everest and its ascent Find out about the 1953 expedition and what impact tourism has had on the area
KS3: Russia's regions and roles Exploring the geography of Russia
KS3: Adventure landscapes Exploring physical geography and environmental interaction through adventure.
KS3: Coasts Exploring coasts as dynamic and changing systems
KS3: Fantastic places Stimulating an interest in and a sense of wonder about places
KS3: Glacial environments Looking at changing glacial environments
KS3: Glaciation and geological timescales Understanding glaciation and geological timescales
KS4: Extreme tourism The research looks at travel along the ‘Chadar’ Ice River to Zanskar, which is the only way in or out of this remote Himalayan kingdom for eight months of the year
KS4: Grand Alpine Tour Exploring the magnitude, frequency and spatial distribution of landslides above thinning and retreating glaciers in the Alps
KS4: Moorland ecology The research looks at remote locations in the Peak District National Park to explore the recovery of areas of moorland which have been affected by fires
KS4: Polar science The Pole of Cold is a journey to chase the onset of winter across Europe and Siberia as far as the Pole of Cold, the coldest place in the northern hemisphere
KS4: Coral reef ecosystems The research looks at the exploitation and Management of a Coral Reef Ecosystem around Menjangan Island in Bali, Indonesia
KS5: Ocean acidification This research aimed to investigate the impact of ocean acidification on biogeochemical cycling through sea ice, and how this affects Arctic marine communities
KS5: Arid environments These resources highlight various challenges facing those living in the Gobi Desert region, including natural hazards and food production and security
KS5: Glacial landscapes This research project looked at evidence for the presence of glaciers in the Drakensberg Mountains in the past to understand the glacial history of the area
Discovering the Arctic Examining the local and international implications of changes to the region's environments and peoples. Run in conjunction with the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Scottish Association for Marine Science and British Antarctic Survey
Discovering Antarctica Interactive website covering topics such as climate change and future pressures in the region. Run in conjunction with the Foreign & Commonwealth Office and British Antarctic Survey
Discovering Galapagos Discovering Galapagos is an interactive, bilingual, educational resource from the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) and the Galapagos Conservation Trust that will bring the islands to life in your classroom

Case studies

Nepal Earthquakes, Avalanches and Landslides (May 2015)

In 2015, Nepal experienced a magnitude 7.8 earthquake, followed by an avalanche on Mount Everest, a second, 7.4 magnitude earthquake and numerous landslides and aftershocks

Ethiopian dam threatens Lake Turkana (April 2015) Lake Turkana is currently the world’s largest lake found within a desert region and there are fears for its future as a means of sustaining both local economies and ecology
China's Great Green Wall (January 2015) The Problem of Desertification in China

Ask the Experts

Landslides and risks (July 2015) Professor Dave Petley, Pro-Vice-Chanchellor for Research and Enterprise at University of East Anglia
The Antarctic Treaty (March 2015) Henry Burgess, Deputy Head, Polar Regions Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Antarctic glaciers (February 2014) Dr Bethan Davies, post-doctoral researcher, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences Aberystwyth University
Glaciation (February 2014) Dr Kathryn Adamson, Lecturer in physical geography, Queen Mary University of London
Coastal erosion (October 2013) David Sear, Professor in physical geography, University of Southampton
Glacial change (July 2013) Ulrich Kamp, Associate Professor in Geography, University of Montana, USA
Flooding (March 2013) Alan Werrity, Professor in Geography, University of Dundee
Jurassic coast (June 2011) Dr Anjana Ford, Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site

60 second guides

School Members, Early Career Teacher Members and Young Geographers can sign in to read the full range of articles. If you are not already a member you can join us as a School Member or Young Geographer and access our vast library of educational articles.



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