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England and Wales are more ethnically diverse – and less segregated – than ever before, according to new research published today in the Geographical Journal following an in-depth analysis of 2021 Census data.

Dr Gemma Catney from Queen’s University Belfast led an international team of researchers, who have published the first peer-reviewed analysis of the geographies of ethnic segregation and diversity using data from the 2021 Census. The team explored this at the national level, across 331 districts including large cities, and in the 36,000 local neighbourhoods of England and Wales. They also explored change over time, across four Census time points (1991, 2001, 2011, 2021).

The researchers found that ethnic residential segregation has been steadily decreasing over the last three decades (1991-2021), for all ethnic groups.

Their study showed that England and Wales is increasingly ethnically diverse and mixed. Across thousands of neighbourhoods, people from White, Black, Asian, mixed and other ethnic groups are now living side by side.

Using the Reciprocal Diversity Index (RDI) which compares levels of ethnic diversity between places and over time and with values ranging from zero to 100, they found that the number of neighbourhoods with very high levels of diversity (RDI of 30 or more) was 2,201 in 2021 (representing 6.2% of neighbourhoods). This is up from 1,578 in 2011 (4.4%), and just 342 (1.0%) in 2001.

The researchers also found that:

  • The most diverse district in England and Wales is the London borough of Newham, where people of Bangladeshi heritage had a 16% share of the population, followed by White British (15%), other White (15%), Black African (12%) and Indian (11%). People from other ethnic groups made up the remaining third of Newham’s population.

  • Outside of London was also ethnically diverse. In Slough (the sixth most diverse district), the top four ethnic groups were White British (24%), Pakistani (22%), Indian (19%) and other White (11%). And in Manchester the largest ethnic groups were White British (49%), Pakistani (12%), Black African (9%) and other White (6%).

  • Ethnic diversity, measured using the RDI, grew steadily across England and Wales as a whole, increasing from 2.02 in 2001, to 3.56 in 2011, and to 5.14 in 2021.

  • The growth of ethnic diversity at national and district levels is mirrored at the local level. Many neighbourhoods in large cities (such as London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Leicester) have grown in diversity, as well as neighbourhoods beyond metropolitan areas. The researchers found fewer neighbourhoods with low levels of ethnic diversity than ever.

Commenting on the findings, Dr Gemma Catney from Geography in the School of Natural and Built Environment at Queen’s says: “The Census is the gold standard for obtaining a full and detailed picture of how the UK’s population is changing. The publication of data in November provided an unrivalled opportunity for us to gain insights into the changing ethnic mosaic of England and Wales.

“After in-depth analysis, our research shows that people are more likely than ever to live next door to someone of a different ethnic background to their own. The population of England and Wales are more ethnically diverse and mixed, and less segregated than ever before.”


Launching in February, the authors of the study are next collaborating on a new £1m project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, entitled ‘Geographies of Ethnic Diversity and Inequalities’ or ‘GEDI’, and focusing on ethnic diversity, residential segregation, socio-spatial inequalities, and migration in the UK. Dr Catney will lead a team from Queen’s University Belfast, the University of St Andrews, University of Bristol, University College London, Dartmouth College (USA), and University of Washington (USA).




Notes to editor

  • For further media enquiries, images, or interview requests with Dr Gemma Catney, please contact the Society’s Press Officer, Lucy Preston on +44 (0)77 1478 3126 or

  • The paper, which has been published by the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) in their journal, the Geographical Journal, is available to download from Tuesday 17 January here

  • An advance version of the paper, plus figures 1, 2, 5a and 5b, can be downloaded from here. This version of the article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review, but is uncorrected awaiting some final non-material changes, which may lead to differences between this version and the Final Version of Record. Please cite this article as: Geographical Journal, DOI: 10.1111/geoj.12507.

  • The Geographical Journal publishes articles and commentaries that make a major conceptual and/or empirical contribution to stimulating or shaping future public and policy-orientated agendas across human and physical geography. First published in 1831, historically it has been the journal of record of the Society. More information about the journal can be found here.

  • The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the learned society and professional body for geography. Formed in 1830, our Royal Charter of 1859 is for 'the advancement of geographical science'. Today, we deliver this objective through developing, supporting and promoting geographical research, expeditions and fieldwork, education, public engagement, and geography input to policy. We aim to foster an understanding and informed enjoyment of our world. We hold the world's largest private geographical collection and provide public access to it. We have a thriving Fellowship and membership and offer the professional accreditation 'Chartered Geographer’.

  • Queen’s University Belfast is a member of the Russell Group UK research-intensive universities, providing world-class education underpinned by world-class research. Founded as Queen’s College in 1845, it became a university in its own right in 1908. Today, it is an international centre of research and education, with a student-centred ethos. Queen’s is globally connected and networked with strategic partnerships across the world. It is a dynamic and diverse institution, a magnet for inward investment, a patron of the arts and a global player in areas ranging from biomedical and clinical studies to sustainability, and from pharmaceuticals to creative writing.

  • GEDI is a £1million project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The project aims to examine, analyse, and explain the UK's changing ethnic geographies through a novel integration of research strands on ethnic diversity, residential segregation, socio-spatial inequalities, and migration. GEDI is a timely and innovative programme of research which aims to use the latest Census data to provide a comprehensive picture of the small area (neighbourhood) ethnic landscape of the UK, and how this has changed over time (1991-2021/22). GEDI is a major collaboration with colleagues in several UK and US universities, and with project partners the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) and the Runnymede Trust.