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Research by Liverpool Hope University has increased awareness and understanding of environmental hazards in Malta by changing and creating a cultural preparedness for hazard events at a national level.



Though perceived to be a non-disaster-prone destination, Malta is hazard exposed because of the impacts of volcanic eruptions (volcanic ash from neighbouring Mount Etna), earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, flash floods, and slope failure. Due to the small size of Malta, much of the critical and tourism infrastructure is located in coastal areas, increasing the vulnerability of the islands should a disaster occur.



Four main themes underpin this research: vulnerability and culture, hazard exposure in coastal locations, the tourism industry in Malta, and stakeholder networks and engagement.



Two conference workshops (February 2018 and February 2019) were held in Floriana, Malta, entitled “Hazard awareness and vulnerability of tourism destinations in the Maltese Islands”. Overall, 20 stakeholders ranging from scientific academics, private sector, government organisations/ministries and non-governmental organisations contributed.

The research from the workshops led to the creation of a national Tsunami Advisory Board in 2019. It also resulting in improved communications amongst different levels of government with regards to disaster risk reduction (DRR) frameworks, the incorporation of hazard awareness training into educational establishments and the tourism industry, and greater stakeholder collaboration between different sectors.


More information

Institution: Liverpool Hope University 

Researchers: Dr Victoria Kennedy, Dr Kevin Crawford, Associate Professor Janet Speake, Professor David Chester


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Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) (2023) Influencing national cultural preparedness for environmental extremes in Malta​. Available at  Last accessed on: <date>